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Messianic Prophecies and Their Fulfillment: Psalms

Don Ruhl • Savage Street, Grants Pass, Oregon • March 4, ad 2012


  1. Psalm 2.1–3 – The Plot Against the Messiah
    1. This prophecy shows the nations, that is, the Gentiles, conspiring with the Jews against Yahweh and His Messiah, desiring to break their bonds that the Gentiles and Jews might not submit to the Divine Duo.
      1. Verse 2 then narrows it down more to the leaders on both sides. While it is true that some among the rulers of the Jews did not participate in this evil deed—Nicodemus and Joseph—as a whole the rulers did conspire against the Anointed One.
      2. It is also true that Pilate sought to let Jesus go, as Peter argued before the Jewish leaders (Acts 3.13), and Herod did not find anything against Jesus, yet, both men had the power to stop the whole thing, but did not, and Pilate even ordered the crucifixion.
    2. Luke 23.1–25
    3. Acts 4.24–28
  2. Psalm 2.2 – The Anointed
    1. Hannah introduced this to us (1Sa 2.10), and David picks it up here, and expands on it.
      1. Whereas Hannah merely showed the exaltation of the Messiah, David shows a plot against the One whom God had selected, emphasizing or contrasting what the Gentiles and the Jews would do to God’s selection.
      2. God selected; man rejected.
    2. Acts 4.27
      1. Notice how the church in their prayer referred to Jesus as the One whom God had anointed, making Him the Christ in our language.
      2. Of course, every time we refer to Jesus as Christ, we are saying He is the Anointed One, that is, anointed of God Himself.
  3. Psalm 2.4–6 – The Messiah, King on Zion
    1. Observe that while men plotted against Yahweh and His Anointed One, Yahweh laughed at the plotters, holding them in derision, because they could not break the bonds of God, and they could not cast away the cords of Yahweh and His Anointed.
    2. Then He announces to them that the One they have rejected as their King, God has in fact made King, setting Him upon Zion.
    3. John 12.12–15 shows that even the people of Israel initially accepted Him as their King, believing that He was fulfilling the messianic prophecies, although later the people changed their opinion, and did the very thing that Psalm 2 prophesied.
  4. Psalm 2.7 – The Declaration of God’s Son
    1. Psalm 2.7 has the Son declaring that Yahweh would say, He is His Son, on a certain day He had begotten Him.
    2. While Luke does not quote Psalm 2.7, he does by genealogy show that Jesus is the Son of God when you compare Luke 3.23 with verse 38, and the list that is between those verses.
    3. Paul used this passage in Acts 13.33 to state that the resurrection of Jesus fulfilled Psalm 2.7. [In light of what Paul said, it confuses me as to why J. Barton Payne states Psalm 2.7 is a passage that is “not properly predictive, though sometimes mistaken for such” (p. 727). Therefore, he does not list it along with all the other prophecies of his otherwise great book, Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy]
    4. In Hebrews 1.5 the writer argues that such a declaration was never made to any angel—which refutes the doctrine of the “Jehovah’s Witnesses” that He is a created angel, namely, Michael—and it was made to the Son Jesus.
    5. In Hebrews 5.5, the writer uses Psalm 2.7 again to show that such a prophecy showed that Jesus did not exalt Himself, but God exalted Jesus and made Him a High Priest.
  5. Psalm 2.8, 9 – The Messiah’s World Domination
    1. In verse 7, the Father declares that the Messiah is the Son of God, and since He is the Son of God, the Father will give the Son the nations and the earth.
      1. He can then do with them as He pleases, breaking them with a rod of iron, or dashing them to pieces like a potter’s vessel.
      2. After all, they plotted against Him, seeking to break the bonds of the Father and the Son (vv. 1–3).
      3. However, He who sits in the heavens has the last laugh (vv. 4–6).
    2. Remember Matthew version of the Great Commission and that Jesus declared all authority in heaven and on earth had been given to Him (Matt 28.18–20).
    3. To the church at Thyatira, Jesus promised to the overcomers, and to those who keep His works to the end that they shall have power over the nations, even as He received from His Father, and Jesus quoted Psalm 2.8, 9 (Rev 2.26–28).
    4. Revelation 11.15 shows the reign of Jesus over all the nations.
  6. Psalm 2.10–12 – Blessed for Trusting in the Son
    1. The kings and rulers (See v. 2), or judges (v. 10) can be wise by serving the Lord with fear, rejoicing with trembling, and kissing the Son, for if the nations do not do those things, the Son shall pour out his angry, and they shall perish in the way, even when His wrath is kindled a little.
      1. This just shows the continued vanity of the nations and the peoples (v. 1), for plotting against Yahweh and His Anointed, believing they can break the bonds and cast away the cords of God and His Son.
        1. Not only will the Father install His Son as King, but He will declare the Sonship of the Messiah, give Him the nations and the earth.
        2. The Son of God rules over the all the nations of the world. Therefore, if they do not do homage to Him, He can remove them. And everyone will eventually confess the Lordship of Jesus (Phi 2.9–11).
    2. Ephesians 1.20–23 shows that from the time of His ascension Jesus rules above every form of authority, but notice verse 22 in particular.
      1. He reigns over the church, which is also over everything else; not meaning that we can exercise authority over the nations, but that Jesus places us at the top, and He uses us to exert His influence in the nations of the earth. While the Lord reigned over all the earth previous to the church, yet, the kingdom of God was limited to Israel, but now with the church His kingdom has spread over all the earth, going into every nation.
      2. The Book of Revelation also shows Jesus over everything and the important place that the church has in the world. The nations do not recognize our place in the scheme of things, or our part in world influence, in fact, most Christians do not even see this, but it is nevertheless present.
    3. Rev 11.15
    4. Rev 15.3, 4
    5. Rev 17.14–18
    6. Phi 2.9–11
  7. Psalm 8.2 – The Young Praise the Lord
    1. While this may not refer to the Messiah exclusively, it certainly includes Him, and Jesus quoted it when His critics wanted Him to rebuke young people for exalting Him.
      1. This text speaks of the Lord using babes and infants, young people, to display strength, and thereby silencing the enemies of the Lord.
    2. Matthew 21.15, 16 show this very thing happening, for the chief priests and scribes became angry when they heard children crying out in the temple, “Hosanna to the Son of David,” and they expected Jesus to silence the children, instead He quoted Psalm 8.2 and silenced the chief priests and scribes.
  8. Psalm 8.5, 6 – His Humiliation and Exaltation
    1. This psalm, at least verses 3–8, appear to be about man, and that is true, but when we get to the New Testament we discover a larger meaning for this passage.
      1. The passage speaks of mankind, but as we have seen from other references, the Messiah would be a man, or would become a man, so that what verses 5 and 6 say of mankind, would also be true of Him, but in a larger way.
      2. As deity, He was above the angels, but when He became a man and lived on the earth, He made Himself a little lower than the angels, nevertheless, as man, and as God in man, He showed that He had or as dominion over all creation.
        1. His miracles especially demonstrated this truth.
        2. Then when He ascended into heaven, there is no doubt that everything and everyone, except the Father, was placed under His feet.
    2. First Corinthians 15.25–28 explain how everything is or will be under the subjection of Jesus, with the exception of the Father, and Psalm 8.6 supports this doctrine.
    3. Hebrews 2.5–9 takes the Psalm 8 text and expounds upon it, showing that even as He became lower than the angels, so He received glory and honor because of His suffering and death.
  9. Psalm 16.8–11 – The Resurrection of the Messiah
    1. David spoke words that could not only apply to him, because they first applied to the Messiah, that is, David’s hope of being resurrected was based on the Messiah’s resurrection.
      1. Therefore, this passage refers first to the Messiah, a point that Peter will make as we shall see.
      2. The psalm begins with a plea for God to preserve the psalmist, or the Messiah, because in God does He trust.
        1. He picks up that theme again in verse 8, saying that He had always set Yahweh before His eyes, and since God was at the Messiah’s right hand, He would not be moved.
        2. Therefore, He rejoiced, because what verses 1 and 8 mean God would not leave the soul of the Messiah in Sheol, but He would leave it, re-enter His body before it decayed and be resurrected.
    2. In John 20.9, the apostle spoke of himself and his fellow-apostles that when they discovered that the body of Jesus no longer laid in His tomb that they did not yet realize He had been raised.
      1. They had focused on other things connected with the Messiah, and missed what the Bible said about His suffering, especially His death, and His subsequent resurrection.
      2. They knew Psalm 16, but for the moment, they either did not understand what it prophesied, or it just simply was not in their memory for the moment.
    3. Luke recorded the magnificent sermon of Peter as he convicted the Jews of killing the Son of God, but that although they killed Him, God raised Him from the dead, and these Jews would have known of the talk going around Jerusalem that Jesus of Nazareth had risen from the dead.
      1. To support the claim of the resurrection of Jesus, Peter quoted David, which was an exceedingly wise thing to do.
      2. Acts 2.25–32 records the part of Peter’s speech in which he both quoted and commented upon the words of David in Psalm 16, declaring that David died and his body still rested in his tomb and obviously it had deteriorated, and his bones only remained, so that the prophecy of Psalm 16 could not refer to David, Peter argued.
        1. Peter added that coupled with other things God said to David that his seed the Messiah would sit on the throne of David, David foresaw the resurrection of the Messiah, and His flesh did not see corruption, and His soul was not left in Hades.
    4. In Acts 13, Paul and his party traveled to Antioch in Pisidia, and while there Paul had the opportunity to preach in the synagogue. In verses 27–29, the apostle revealed how the Jews in Jerusalem condemned Jesus of Nazareth, and had the Romans kill Him.
      1. However, in verse 30, Paul declared that God raised Jesus from the dead. To support that claim and that it was founded in the Scriptures, and so should not have surprised them, Paul quoted the Second Psalm (v. 33), and he quoted Isaiah 55.3, and then in verses 35 Paul quoted Psalm 16.10, and he did as Peter did in Acts 2, stating how Psalm 16 could not have referred to David, but to the Christ, because the body of David saw corruption, whereas Jesus saw no corruption.
  10. Psalm 18.49 – The Messiah Among the Gentiles
    1. This magnificent hope for the Gentiles that the Messiah would be among them, joining them in giving thanks to God and singing praises with them, begins in verse 46 with the proclamation that the Lord lives.
      1. Therefore, He gives victory over the enemy (vv. 47, 48), and then you will notice that verse 49 begins with “therefore,” because it is the victory of the Messiah over His enemies, primarily through the resurrection that He can be among the Gentiles, giving thanks and singing.
      2. Because of this, I believe that verses 46–48 also speak of the Messiah.
    2. Paul made use of this passage in Romans 15.9 after declaring that we receive one another to the glory of God (v. 7), because Paul reminded us that Jesus became a servant to the circumcision (v. 8), and Jesus also worked that the Gentiles might glorify God for His mercy and Paul quoted Psalm 18.49 to back him up.
    3. Think on what Psalm 18.49 and Romans 15.9 say about Jesus among us!
    4. See also Ephesians 3.1–7, although not a quote of Psalm 18, it nevertheless, shows the fulfillment of the idea.
  11. Psalm 22.1 – God Would Forsake the Messiah
    1. Can you find more haunting words than these ones? Should those not have been our words? Can we understand the deep despair in the soul of Jesus when He knew that the Father withdrew from Him?
      1. I have known some people who question whether the Father truly separated from the Son, reasoning that if God would do that to His own Son, what about us? That is just the point, God cannot look upon sin, even when His own Son carries the sins of the world.
      2. This shows our desperate condition in sin and without God. Isaiah 59.1, 2 show just how alone we are without God because of our sin.
      3. Also, Habakkuk 1.13 states a well-known and accepted teaching about God, that He cannot look upon evil. This is why He had to turn from His Son.
    2. Matthew 27.45, 46 show Jesus quoting Psalm 22.1, yet, it was not so much that He quoted those words, for David merely wrote down what the Messiah would say, and here in Matthew 27, Jesus says the words as His own, for they were His own.
      1. Jesus asked the question, although He knew the academic answer. He may have asked for our benefit, that we might know what He experienced. This troubled Him more than the bodily or emotional suffering.
      2. Jesus was ever the Teacher, and so He asked a question to which He knew the answer, but He wanted us to think on the answer.
    3. Mark 15.33, 34 record the same words.
    4. Second Corinthians 5.21 lend great insight as to what happened that day, revealing the massive burden upon the Son of God for our benefit.
    5. I just want to know how hard was it for the Father to remain silent in the Garden, and at the Cross? How much did it hurt the Father to allow this to happen to His Son, and how much did it tear at His heart to turn away from His Son and ignore His pleas?
  12. Psalm 22.2 – The Messiah’s Prayers
    1. While Jesus quoted the words of verse 1 on the cross, yet, He had prayed before the crucifixion, and it seemed to no avail, since men arrested Him, brutalized Him, and crucified Him.
      1. Therefore, in verse 2 He gives evidence why it seems as though His prayers have gone unanswered, He cried to God throughout the day, never being silent, but God did not appear to hear.
    2. Matt 26.36–44 highlights the prayers of Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane, and although He was the Son of God, and had said the same prayer three times, His wish was not fulfilled, but the Father allowed His Son to suffer horribly.
    3. Heb 5.7 refers to the intense prayers of the Son, and that although He was the Son of God, He still had to obey the wishes of the Father, even if it cost Jesus His life.
    4. Is the second line a prophecy of the darkness over the earth? – Matt 27.45
  13. Psalm 22.6 – The People Despised the Messiah
    1. The first impression for Christians upon reading this passage, is that it hard to believe men treated Jesus as they did. We accept Him fully as the Son of God, and believe He has all the answers for life, and that He is full of grace and truth.
      1. Therefore, to hear Him speak through David that people treated Him as a worm, and not a man, and that they would reproach Him, and despise Him, just seems impossible to accept.
      2. Yet, when we read the Gospel accounts and see how they truly treated Him, it shocks us, and it shocks us more that He patiently received it.
    2. Consider the various ways in which they despised Him:
      1. Matthew 11.19 shows they criticized Him for eating and drinking.
      2. Matthew 12.24 shows them accusing Him of working by the power of Satan.
      3. Matthew 20.17–19 reveals that Jesus knew of the reproach coming.
      4. Matthew 26.23, 24 speaks of His betrayal.
      5. Matthew 27.20 shows that they valued a robber and murderer above Jesus.
      6. John 8.48 shows that men compared Him to a Samaritan, which was despised by the Jews, and that they accused Him of having a demon.
  14. Psalm 22.7 – Action of Ridicule
    1. Here the Messiah spoke through David, indicating that the people would ridicule Him, even detailing the body language of His enemies, that they would shoot out the lip and shake or wag the head, showing their utter contempt for Him.
    2. Could Matthew 27.39 and Mark 15.29 be plainer?
      1. The Gospel writers reveal that the people blasphemed Jesus of Nazareth, and even wagged their heads in disgust as He hung upon the cross.
  15. Psalm 22.8 – Words of Ridicule
    1. This verse shows the Messiah in some kind of trouble, and while in that trouble, His despisers would mock His trust in God, and they would want to see whether God would deliver the Messiah out of His trouble.
      1. Therefore, the Scripture even prophesied what the ridiculers would say during the suffering of the Messiah.
    2. Matthew 27.41–44 shows the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders, along with both men being crucified with Jesus, mocking Him in fulfillment of Psalm 22. We know that later one of these men turned and rebuked the other criminal and even supported Jesus.
  16. Psalm 22.9, 10 – The Infancy of the Messiah
    1. In verses 4 and 5, David revealed that the Messiah would speak of the fathers trusting in God, and He would deliver them for their trust, and then in verse 8, David revealed that even the enemies of the Messiah would recognize, although mockingly, the trust that the Messiah would put in God.
      1. Verses 9 and 10 continue that theme, showing the Messiah trusting in God as an infant. Think about it. The Messiah would leave the comforts and securities of heaven, and allow Himself to be implanted in a woman’s womb, and He would be in her total care. Truly, the Messiah trusted in God to so give Himself up in this manner.
    2. Matthew 1.18–21 and Luke 1.26–35 show that the Messiah born of a woman, and thus under her total care, and He would rely upon her even as any baby relies upon its mother.
    3. Luke 11.27 records a woman declaring the blessedness of the mother of Jesus for having nursed Him.
  17. Psalm 22.11 – All Would Forsake the Messiah
    1. In this verse, you can still feel the Messiah’s abandonment by God, stated in verse 1, where He cried out, “My God, My God, why have you forsaken Me?” and then hear the Messiah in verse 11, pleading with God, “Be not far from Me,” believing or knowing that God is far from Him.
      1. Why did He make this plea? Trouble would be near, and on a level that we cannot begin to imagine, and while trouble was near, there was no one, that is, no human was there to help.
      2. Not one person could or would deliver the Messiah from the massive trouble coming down upon Him, thus proclaiming beforehand how that all the disciples, and everyone else would forsake Him.
    2. Mark 14.50 just says it plainly that they all forsook Him, and fled.
      1. Can we ever know the deep despair that Jesus felt when everyone abandoned Him? Soak in the words of Psalm 22.11, combining it with Mark 14.50, and feel His loneliness.
  18. Psalm 22.12, 13 – The Rage of the Messiah’s Enemies During the Crucifixion
    1. Which is more dangerous? To be surrounded by strong bulls, or to have a raging and roaring lion gaping at you? Now imagine you have both coming at you; it would be a situation from which you could not escape, and the Messiah did not escape their tortuous death.
      1. As Psalm 2 showed, the Messiah would have both the Gentiles (the bulls), and the Jews (the lion, a symbol of the tribe of Judah) after Him.
    2. All the Gospel Accounts show the raging of the bulls and lion against Jesus of Nazareth, at His trials and at the crucifixion. They hungered for His blood, and almost seemed to enjoy afflicting Him, but their hatred of Him stands out more than anything.
  19. Psalm 22.14a – Specifics of a Crucifixion #1: A Slow Death
    1. Hugo McCord wrote this of verses 14–18, “The psalmist followed the description of the sufferer’s enemies with the most vivid description of the crucifixion that could have been painted without having been there n person” (p. 53).
    2. The first line of Psalm 22.14 says, “I am poured out like water,” which is not a sudden action, although it can happen relatively fast, but it is not instantaneous.
      1. Also, a line in Isaiah 50.6 prophesied, “Because he poured out His soul unto death.”
      2. The Bible does not picture a swift death for the Messiah, such as a beheading, another form of Roman execution, but the slow agonizing death of a crucifixion, and when compared with the other images in Psalm 22, this becomes even more obvious.
    3. Mark 15.25 records the beginning of the crucifixion at the third hour Jewish time, which is 9:00 a.m. Roman or the time we use today.
    4. Mark 15.33 shows two time segments, that starting at the sixth hour (12 noon), and lasting until the ninth hour (3:00 p.m.) there was darkness over the whole land, and shortly thereafter Jesus of Nazareth, the Messiah of the Old Testament died, according to verse 37.
  20. Psalm 22.14b – Specifics of a Crucifixion #2: The Weight of His Body
    1. In the second line of Psalm 22.14, the Messiah would have this experience, “And all My bones are out of joint.” Picture yourself hanging on a Roman cross, and feel the weight of your body pulling on your arms, and on your back.
      1. Nails are in your feet, so you cannot push down on your feet to relieve the sagging weight of your body on the bones, and the joints, except for when you push up to take in a breath.
      2. It would feel as though your bones are out of joint.
    2. I do not know of a passage in the New Testament that relates this exact experience, but this fits in with what we can imagine a crucifixion would be like.
  21. Psalm 22.14cd – Specifics of a Crucifixion #3: The Heart
    1. The impression from this verse, and verse 15, shows that the Messiah spoke of His natural heart, not the spiritual heart, that is, He does not appear in this verse to speak of the agony, discouragement, and depression of His heart/soul, which surely was part of the whole event, but here He speaks of the blood pump, that He could feel it failing.
    2. John 19.34 indicates what happened to Jesus, and it gives us further insight into Psalm 22. To insure that Jesus had died, a soldier pierced the heart of Jesus, because the soldier knew whether a man was still alive on the cross, and it appeared to him that Jesus of Nazareth was dead, and thus did not break His legs, but either to insure that He was dead, or to bring about immediate death (in case Jesus was just at the brink of death, and though appearing dead, was not truly dead), the soldier pierced the left side of Jesus.
      1. John said immediately blood and water came out. What looked like water (such as when we refer to the amniotic fluid as the “bag of waters”), then followed the blood, because it had filled the pericardium and squeezed out the blood in the heart, and once the blood had drained, the “water,” then came out.
      2. Jesus could feel His heart not beating easily because of the fluid around the heart, restricting it from pumping.
  22. Psalm 22.15 – Specifics of a Crucifixion #4: The Agonies of Thirst
    1. The intensity of thirst while crucified we can only imagine. What does the body experience? We frequently need water during our normal daily affairs, but when we increase the body’s activity, the need for water increases also. A crucifixion certainly brought on a deep need for water.
      1. In Psalm 22.15, the Messiah revealed through David the extreme intensity of thirst that He would experience during crucifixion.
      2. His strength would dry up, His tongue would cleave to His jaws, and He would be looking at the face of death, that is, His extreme thirst, His dehydration would help bring on His death.
    2. In John 19.28–30, the apostle said that toward the end, when Jesus knew that all things had been fulfilled, He fulfilled Scripture further when He expressed His intense desire, “I thirst,” at which time someone put a sour-wine-soaked sponge on hyssop and put it to His mouth, and after that He declared, “It is finished,” bowed His head, and gave up His spirit.
      1. To understand the thirst of Jesus, remember that He had lost moisture during His fervent prayer in the garden. We doubt that the Jews gave Him anything to drink during His trials with them, and we think the same thing during His trials with the Romans.
      2. He bled during the scourging, and the whole event would cause Him to sweat and breathe heavily, losing still more moisture out of His body, and yet, His enemies did nothing to rehydrate Him.
      3. As His body fought the whole crucifixion event, He would have used up still more of the precious fluid in His body.
  23. Psalm 22.16ab – Specifics of a Crucifixion #5: Surrounded by Enemies
    1. The first two lines of this verse show that the Messiah would be surrounded by “dogs” and “the congregation of the wicked,” the first referring to the Gentiles, or the Romans, and the second referring to the Israelites. The Messiah through David already used bulls and lions to picture the enemies, and now uses the imagery of dogs, evil snarling dogs, circling for the kill.
      1. Everyone would have forsaken Him, but the evil people would be there, surrounding Him, making sure the wicked deed had been done.
      2. Picture them as sharks circling for the kill, showing that the Messiah would not die a natural death, but He would die violently.
    2. Luke 23.35–37 shows both the people of Israel and the Roman soldiers at the cross, taunting Him, surrounding Him, waiting for Him to die.
    3. Matthew 27.41–44 provides more commentary on the congregation of the wicked, and what they were doing at the cross of Jesus, tormenting Him with their words.
  24. Psalm 22.16c – Specifics of a Crucifixion #6: Nails Pierce the Hands and the Feet
    1. Here the Messiah revealed centuries before the Romans had perfected the horrible method of capital punishment by torturing a man to death, nailing him to a cross, that the Romans would pierce His hands and His feet.
      1. When David penned these words by the direction of the Messiah, from what we know he did not know of the means of crucifixion. Who could be so cruel as to nail a man to a cross until he died? Yet, the Romans would do it centuries later, although the Persians had begun to experiment with this means of execution.
      2. As Herbert Lockyer wrote, “One of the most remarkable features of the Psalm of the cross is its prophecy of death by Crucifixion, which was unknown among Jews until their captivity, 600 b.c. The Jews executed their criminals by stoning. Crucifixion was a Roman and a Grecian custom, but the Grecian and Roman empires were not in existence in David’s time” (p. 150).
      3. Even more amazing is that the Messiah knew centuries before that He would submit Himself to this terrible way of dying.
      4. Interestingly, other places exist in the Old Testament that reference the piercing of the Messiah, and we shall examine those passages as we move along through the Old Testament Messianic prophecies.
    2. Matthew 27.38 and the other Gospel accounts tell us that Jesus of Nazareth experienced this very means of Roman execution, and to see that it involved the piercing of His hands, John 20.25 records the words of Thomas, disbelieving the reports that Jesus had been resurrected, that Thomas would not believe in the resurrection until he could touch and see the print of the nails in hands of Jesus.
      1. Then John 20.27 shows Jesus later telling Thomas to reach and touch His hands and to see them as well, that Thomas might know it was the crucified, and now resurrected Savior of the world.
      2. The reaction of Thomas to seeing and feeling the print of the nails in the hands of the Messiah shows what Thomas thought of this Man standing before, that He is the Lord, and He is God (John 20.28).
  25. Psalm 22.17a – Specifics of a Crucifixion #7: His Bones
    1. A second time the Messiah would refer to His bones (The first time was in verse 14). Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., says of Psalm 22.17, “His skin has become so taunt that his bones stick out” (The Messiah in the Old Testament, pp. 115, 116). Homer Hailey said, “Either meant that when suspended from the crossbar of the cross, His rib bones could be counted; or it meant that all were intact, not a one was broken” (The Messiah of Prophecy to the Messiah on the Throne, p. 55).
    2. If this prophesied that His enemies would not break His bones, then John 19.31–36 shows the fulfillment. Whereas, if this prophesied of the weight of His body pulling upon His hands, we can visualize just what Kaiser and Hailey stated, and pain would certainly have raked every part of His body, hence all His bones, making Him aware of His bones in ways that we normally do not think.
  26. Psalm 22.17b – Specifics of a Crucifixion #8: The Stares of the People
    1. At first read, we might be tempted to interpret “they,” as His bones, but the surrounding context shows that this refers to His enemies, especially as you read further into verse 18. The Messiah mentioned His bones in the first line of verse 17, because in verse 16, He had told how His enemies had pierced His hands and His feet, and that brought on the agony of His bones, which He mentions parenthetically, or just as a further elaboration of the piercing.
      1. That His enemies would stare at Him during His crucifixion shows up in Isaiah 52.14 and Zechariah 12.10, which we shall examine later, but this was significant enough the Old Testament referenced it at least three times.
      2. What exactly does it convey? It shows their lack of mercy, and their desire to see the crucifixion of the Messiah to the end.
    2. Matthew 27.36 states plainly that the Romans sat and kept watch over Jesus of Nazareth, and Luke 23.35 refers to the people, that would be the Jews, standing and looking on.
      1. No one could turn away from the sight of this popular Man and His apparent sad ending.
      2. Perhaps some stared, waiting to see whether He would come down from the cross miraculously, and others may have stared as often happens at the scene of a disaster, such as a horrible auto wreck, because some people are in shock at what they have seen, and others do not know what to do. Some people just like to stare at a gory sight.
      3. People have also historically gathered to watch a public execution.
  27. Psalm 22.18 – Specifics of a Crucifixion #9: Gambling for His Clothing
    1. In my opinion, this shows the cluelessness of the world more than anything. They had no idea of the holy and sacrificial act being done for them, truly they were so far removed from such thinking that they cast lots for His clothing, for that was all He meant to them! How much more could they have shown their carelessness?
      1. Contemplate the details of this passage. They would divide His garments among them, that is, each soldier would get a part (and the New Testament record shows He had five pieces of clothing, but there were only four soldiers), so while each received a part, yet, the Messiah would wear five, and it was a special piece, and rather than destroying it by cutting it up, they decided to cast lots to see who would get the whole thing.
      2. And of course, this all implies His nakedness during this entire ordeal.
    2. All four Gospel writers showed this amazing prophecy (Matt 27.35; Mark 15.24; Luke 23.34; John 19.23, 24). Luke notes this disgraceful act of the Roman soldiers just after noting that Jesus prayed for His executioners, because they did not know what they were doing. How true! They stripped the Creator, coveted His clothing, and gambled one piece in particular. They really had no idea what they were doing and to whom they did it, although the centurion later did come to the realization.
  28. Psalm 22.19–21ab – A Final Prayer Before Death
    1. Obviously, verses 1–18 detail many of the things that would happen when the Gentiles and the people would crucify the Messiah, and for that reason, we conclude that the rest of the Psalm deals with the crucifixion and what happened afterwards.
      1. Also in the third line of verse 21, we can tell that something has changed. That makes verses 19–21ab the end of His prayer. He began by asking God why He had forsaken Him, and stated that He prayed to God repeatedly through this whole affair.
      2. He pictured His enemies as bulls (v. 12), a lion (v13), and as dogs (v. 16), and then at the end of His prayer, He used the same imagery, but in reverse: the dog (v. 20), the lion (v. 21), and the oxen or bulls (v. 21).
      3. For these reasons, I believe verses 19–21ab still expresses the heart of the Messiah as He experienced death by crucifixion, although we cannot find a specific New Testament passage that quotes these verses.
    2. However, Luke 23.46 certainly expresses the idea, that Jesus of Nazareth as the Messiah committed Himself to God.
  29. Psalm 22.21c – God Delivered the Messiah
    1. When you read Psalm 22, starting at verse 1 through the second line of verse 21, you feel the deepest despair of the Messiah. Death encloses Him, and even the Father has forsaken Him, but then, something happens in that third line of verse 21. As you read the Psalm, be sure to pause at the end of the second line in verse 21, and then read the last line,

      21c You have answered Me.
      (Psa 22.21c)

      1. Even as when we are in sin, hence separated from God, yet, we can still say, “in Him we live and move and have our being,” so the Messiah although loaded with the sins of the world, hence separated from God, yet, in God the Messiah lived, moved, had His being, and died.
      2. God had forsaken the Messiah, but God was completely aware of what was happening, and finally delivered the Messiah from the cross. How did that deliverance come? It came through death.
      3. Deliverance does not always mean restoration to a former good time in our lives, but it can be by death, for think of it: Does not death deliver us from agony?
    2. The New Testament records the death of Jesus the Messiah,

      50 And Jesus cried out again with a loud voice, and yielded up His spirit (Matt 27.50).

      37 And Jesus cried out with a loud voice, and breathed His last (Mark 15.37).

      46 And when Jesus had cried out with a loud voice, He said, “Father, ‘into Your hands I commit My spirit.’” Having said this, He breathed His last (Luke 23.46).

      30 So when Jesus had received the sour wine, He said, “It is finished!” And bowing His head, He gave up His spirit (John 19.30).

  30. Psalm 22.22–31 – The Resurrection
    1. Taken by itself, this passage would not seem to point to the resurrection. However, when coupled with the first twenty-one verses, we should see the connection, for those verses show clearly the Messiah during His crucifixion, with the main point being that God had forsaken the Messiah, and He shows God what man was doing to Him, hoping that God would hear Him.
      1. Verses 19–21ab record His final plea for God to hear just before He dies, and then God hears by delivering the Messiah through death.
      2. Yet, in verses 22–31, the Messiah lives, and the entire passage shows the result of the resurrected Messiah.
        1. Verses 22, 23 show Him declaring God’s name to the assembly and standing with the congregation, praising God.
        2. Verse 24 explains why the congregation should praise God, because ultimately He did not forsake the Messiah, but heard and delivered Him.
        3. Verses 25, 26 reveal more praise.
        4. Verses 27–29 show that the whole world benefits from His resurrection.
        5. Verses 30, 31 reveal that the resurrection shall be proclaimed throughout the generations.
    2. Hebrews 2.11, 12 quotes Psalm 22.22, declaring that the Messiah has no shame in calling the people of God, even those who killed Him, His brethren,

      11 For both He who sanctifies and those who are being sanctified are all of one, for which reason He is not ashamed to call them brethren, 12 saying:

      “I will declare Your name to My brethren;
      In the midst of the assembly I will sing praise to You.”
      (Heb 2.11, 12).

      1. Praise God that the Messiah so willingly receives all who want to be His brethren.
  31. Psalm 23 – The Lord Is My Shepherd
    1. When you read over Psalm 23, you can see the tender loving care that the Lord has for His people, even as a shepherd does for his sheep.
    2. In John 10.1–18, Jesus lays claim to the shepherd, that He is the Good Shepherd, and we cannot resist seeing the connection with Psalm 23. Everything that the Lord as Shepherd does in Psalm 23, so Jesus does with His disciples.
  32. Psalm 31.5 – The Committal of the Messiah’s Spirit
    1. The question is, Does this passage predict what the Messiah would say, or did the Messiah simply quote it, quote Scripture, as His last dying words? That the Messiah would speak Scripture, does not necessarily mean that Scripture spoke of Him.
    2. Luke recorded that Jesus quoted the first line of this passage just before He died,

      46 And when Jesus had cried out with a loud voice, He said, “Father, ‘into Your hands I commit My spirit.’” Having said this, He breathed His last (Luke 23.46).

  33. Psalm 31.11 – The Fleeing of the Messiah’s Disciples
    1. The rejection of the Messiah occupies much of the Messianic prophecies, and here is another one.
    2. Mark 14.50 shows the fulfillment,

      50 Then they all forsook Him and fled (Mark 14.50).

      1. He who came to bless humanity instead of running from humanity experienced rejection by humanity.
      2. Did it make it easier or harder that He knew this before?
  34. Psalm 31.13 – Counsel Against the Messiah
    1. David typified the life of the Messiah in many ways, including persecution. Therefore, even as some in positions of authority took counsel against David, so some in positions of authority would take counsel against the Messiah.
    2. All four Gospel Accounts show the Jewish authorities conspiring to kill Jesus of Nazareth,

      1 When morning came, all the chief priests and elders of the people plotted against Jesus to put Him to death (Matt 27.1).

      1 After two days it was the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread. And the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might take Him by trickery and put Him to death (Mark 14.1).

      1 Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread drew near, which is called Passover. 2 And the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might kill Him, for they feared the people (Luke 22.1, 2).

      53 Then, from that day on, they plotted to put Him to death (John 11.53).

  35. Psalm 31.14, 15 – Times Committed to God
    1. This passage shows the Messiah placing himself, including His times into the hand of God, wanting Him to deliver the Messiah from the enemy.
    2. Matthew 27.43 shows that the trust Jesus had in God was well-known, even to His enemies.
    3. Also, while on the cross, we hear Jesus quoting Psalm 22.1, and Psalm 31.15, showing that in life and in death, He committed His times to God.
  36. Psalm 34.20 – No Broken Bones
    1. Considering all the brutal treatment of the Jews and the Romans against the Messiah, David made this amazing prophecy that the enemies of the Messiah would not break any of His bones!
      1. Reading the other prophecies would lead us to believe that His bones would be broken, but God seeing the future knew that though the Gentiles and the people would do unbelievable things to the Messiah, yet, they would unintentionally avoid breaking His bones.
      2. His enemies wanted to hurt Him in any way that they could, and they certainly would not want to “help” Him fulfill prophecy, which shows that God was behind this whole thing, not man.
    2. In John 19.31–36, the apostle quoted Psalm 34 to show that Jesus fulfilled the prophecy that none of the bones of the Messiah would be broken.
      1. Not only would His enemies not try to fulfill this prophecy, but if Jesus of Nazareth had been a fraud, He certainly would not be thinking about trying not to let His enemies break His bones as they beat Him, and mistreated Him in other ways.
  37. Psalm 35.19 – The Messiah Hated without a Cause
    1. What harm or evil would the Messiah do to make His enemies hate Him without a cause? From every prophecy we have read thus far, nothing. He would do everything good for all people, including His enemies.
    2. Jesus of Nazareth said,

      25 “But this happened that the word might be fulfilled which is written in their law, ‘They hated Me without a cause’” (John 15.25).

      1. To what did Jesus refer?
        1. In verse 19, Jesus said the world would hate the disciples, even as they hated Him, because they were not of the world, implying that His enemies were of the world,

          19 “If you were of the world, the world would love its own. Yet because you are not of the world, but I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hates you” (John 15.19).

        2. In verse 21, He revealed that His enemies did not know the Father, hence, they persecuted the Son,

          21 “But all these things they will do to you for My name’s sake, because they do not know Him who sent Me” (John 15.21).

        3. Finally in verse 24, He explained that they hated Him because of the works that He did. What works did He do for which they hated Him? The primary one was healing on the Sabbath,

          24 “If I had not done among them the works which no one else did, they would have no sin; but now they have seen and also hated both Me and My Father” (John 15.24).

        4. Also, even Pilate could see why they had turned Jesus over to him,

          10 For he knew that the chief priests had handed Him over because of envy (Mark 15.10).

          1. Of what were the chief priests envious?
          2. He had what they wanted, and that was popularity, respect, and adoring disciples.
    3. It is hard to understand the depth of their hatred, that they would seek His death, and all the other cruel things they did to Him, rather than just ignoring Him, or considering Him out of His mind, or something else. Hate coupled with envy leads to unbelievable cruelty.
  38. Psa 38.11 – Friends and Family Standing Afar Off
    1. While this passage does show the family and friends of the Messiah present, yet, it also shows them at a distance.
    2. Luke wrote,

      49 But all His acquaintances, and the women who followed Him from Galilee, stood at a distance, watching these things (Luke 23.49).

      1. They followed Jesus of Nazareth, but for the crucifixion, they stayed at a distance. How that must have hurt the Son of God, who has always been present for His people.
  39. Psalm 40.6–8 – The Messiah Did the Will of God
    1. Some believe the entire psalm to be messianic, but we will only consider verses 6–8, since the Hebrew writer used them to reference to Jesus. The verses show the preeminence of doing the will of God over offering animal sacrifices.
      1. For the Jew to offer animal sacrifices should have meant that he offered them in fulfillment of the will of God, but it was also possible to offer them without heartfelt obedience to God.
      2. However, ultimately God did not desire animal sacrifices for the removal of sin, but the sacrifice of a perfect human, someone who would state his desire to do God’s will, which no animal could ever declare.
    2. Hebrews 10.1–4 explains the inadequacy of animal sacrifices to remove man’s sin. Then the writer argued that when Jesus came into the world, He lived or even quoted Psalm 40.6–8,

      5 Therefore, when He came into the world, He said:
      “Sacrifice and offering You did not desire,
      But a body You have prepared for Me.
      6 In burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin
      You had no pleasure.
      7 Then I said, ‘Behold, I have come—
      In the volume of the book it is written of Me—
      To do Your will, O God.’”
      (Heb 10.5–7)

      1. Then in the following verses the writer gave a brief exposition of Psalm 40.6–8, arguing,

        8 Previously saying, “Sacrifice and offering, burnt offerings, and offerings for sin You did not desire, nor had pleasure in them” (which are offered according to the law), 9 then He said, “Behold, I have come to do Your will, O God.” He takes away the first that He may establish the second. 10 By that will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all (Heb 10.8–10).

      2. This explains why we no longer offer animal sacrifices, and why we accept fully the sacrifice of Jesus Christ.
      3. I believe that men ought to use this passage during the Lord’s Supper, something that does not happen very often.
  40. Psalm 41.9 – Betrayed by a Friend
    1. In verses 7 and 8, the reader sees how the enemy was against Him, as they conspired to hurt Him, and how they struck Him when they thought He was at His weakest, and to emphasize the point, He revealed how even a familiar friend, someone in whom He had placed trust, even sitting down to eat with Him, lifted his heel against the Messiah, betraying Him to His enemies.
    2. John shows us in John 13.10, 11 that as Jesus washed the feet of His disciples, He revealed that one of them would betray Him, and then John wrote,

      18 “I do not speak concerning all of you. I know whom I have chosen; but that the Scripture may be fulfilled, ‘He who eats bread with Me has lifted up his heel against Me.’ 19 Now I tell you before it comes, that when it does come to pass, you may believe that I am He” (John 13.18, 19).

    3. See also Matthew 26.21–25; Mark 14.18–21; Luke 22.21–23.
  41. Psalm 45.1–5 – The Gracious Words of the Messiah
    1. Isolating verse 2 does not seem necessarily to speak of the Messiah, but when you read verses 6 and 7, and know that Hebrew writer quoted those verses in reference to the Messiah, it caused me to back up in the text, starting at verse 1 and to see how all of this points to the Messiah.
      1. The sons of Korah declared that they would write of the King (v. 1), and the beginning of verse 2 leads us to believe that the writers spoke of Someone greater than humans.
      2. Then reading verses 3 through 5 lead us to see the prosperity of the Messiah’s ministry.
    2. Luke shows how people reacted to the words of Jesus of Nazareth,

      22 So all bore witness to Him, and marveled at the gracious words which proceeded out of His mouth. And they said, “Is this not Joseph’s son?” (Luke 4.22).

    3. Revelation also presents a glorified picture of what Psalm 45.1–5 describes,

      11 Now I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse. And He who sat on him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness He judges and makes war. 12 His eyes were like a flame of fire, and on His head were many crowns. He had a name written that no one knew except Himself. 13 He was clothed with a robe dipped in blood, and His name is called The Word of God. 14 And the armies in heaven, clothed in fine linen, white and clean, followed Him on white horses. 15 Now out of His mouth goes a sharp sword, that with it He should strike the nations. And He Himself will rule them with a rod of iron. He Himself treads the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. 16 And He has on His robe and on His thigh a name written: KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS (Rev 19.11–16).

  42. Psalm 45.6, 7 – The Messiah Would Be God
    1. After having read verses 1–5 we see the mightiness of the Messiah, but then we continue reading and discover why the Messiah is so mighty, for the psalmists call Him God!
      1. In verse 6, the psalmists declare that God’s throne is forever and ever, but then notice verse 7 and the interesting wording of line 2, “Therefore God, Your God, has anointed You…” The Messiah is God and has a God, and God has anointed the Messiah, that is why He is called the Messiah.
    2. Hebrews 1 shows that Psalm 45.6, 7 was meant to declare the deity of the Messiah Jesus of Nazareth. Concerning Jesus, the writer said that He has,

      4 become so much better than the angels, as He has by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they (Heb 1.4).

      1. Then the writer began to quote numerous Old Testament passages that demonstrate how the Messiah is so much better than the angels.
      2. In verse 5, the writer said that the Messiah Jesus is the Son of God, obviously in a way that the angels are not.
      3. Then in verses 6 and 7, the writer progresses in his thought showing that the angels of God worship the Messiah, which implies that the Messiah is divine, and that the angels are ministers of or to the Messiah.
      4. To substantiate such a bold claim, the writer then quotes Psalm 45.6, 7,

        8 But to the Son He says:

        “Your throne, O God, is forever and ever;
        A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom.
        9 You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness;
        Therefore God, Your God, has anointed You
        With the oil of gladness more than Your companions.”
        (Heb 1.8, 9)

  43. Psalm 45.7 – The Anointed One
    1. Psalm 45.7 specifically mentions that God had anointed this King, but in this case the anointing is done with the oil of gladness, as opposed to anointing with the Spirit, which we will see in another prophecy later.
    2. Every time we call Jesus the Christ, we affirm that He is the Anointed One of God, that Jesus is the Messiah.
  44. Psalm 45.8–17 – The Bride of the Messiah
    1. If verses 1–7 picture the Messiah as King, and as God, then verses 8–17 show His bride.
      1. Verses 8–12 show the bride as His queen, and she is dressed in gold. She forgets her own people as she marries the Messiah, and she worships Him, and even people not of Israel seek her.
      2. Verses 13–17 show the glorious beauty of the bride, and how the Messiah adores her.
    2. Ephesians 5.22–33 and Revelation 19.6–9 show the Church as the Beautiful Bride of Christ.
  45. Psalm 68.18 – Messiah Would Give Gifts
    1. This passage shows what the Messiah would do after His resurrection, that He would ascend on high, that is, into heaven, that He would lead captivity captive, and that He would receive among men or give gifts to men.
    2. Ephesians 4.7–16 shows that this referred to the different offices He would set up in the church for the building up of the church.
  46. Psalm 68.18 – The Ascension of the Messiah
    1. Since Ephesians 4.7–16 shows that this passage refers to the work of the Messiah, then we know that this passage also refers to His ascension, for the psalmist mentions the ascension before the giving of gifts.
    2. Mark 16.19 and Luke 24.50, 51 both state that Jesus ascended into heaven.
  47. Psalm 69.1–3 – The Messiah in Trouble
    1. Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., says, “Psalm 69 is quoted more times in the NT than any other psalm except for Psalm 110” (p. 103).
      1. While we may find that some of the passages from this psalm are not quoted in the New Testament in reference to Jesus, yet, seeing how much of the psalm applies to Him, we do for Psalm 69 what we did in Psalm 22, and apply the whole thing to the Messiah.
      2. Thus verses 1–3 show the deep trouble of the Messiah, and that He pleads for God’s help, but the help does not come.
    2. Matthew 27.46 and Mark 15.34 record the haunting words of Jesus on the cross, as He cried out, asking why God had forsaken Him.
  48. Psalm 69.4 – Unwarranted Hatred for the Messiah
    1. How many people hated Jesus then, and how many have hated Him through history, and how many hate Him now? If we think about the endless hate against Him, and that it is all unwarranted, we can then understand what He said in this verse.
    2. We have already examined John 15.18–25, where Jesus Himself explained the world’s hatred of Him, but that He knew it fulfilled Psalm 69 and other prophecies.
  49. Psalm 69.5–12 – Zeal for God’s House Would Bring Reproach to the Messiah
    1. First, how shall we understand verse 5? Did the Messiah have any foolishness and sin? Could we understand it as Second Samuel 7.14 in which God refers to both Solomon and the Messiah? Or is the Messiah speaking on behalf of sinners, because He would suffer for their sin?
    2. Consider the ways in which this part of Psalm 69 reveals the reproach that the Messiah would bear, and the corresponding fulfillment in Jesus:
      1. 69.5 – He took the position of sinners (2Co 5.21)
      2. 69.6 – He became a stumbling block (The disciples betrayed, denied, and forsook Him)
      3. 69.7 – Bore shame for remaining loyal to God (His trials)
      4. 69.8 – Family rejected Him (Mark 3.21; John 7.3–5)
      5. 69.9 – Zeal for God’s house would consume Him (John 2.17)
      6. 69.9 – He would receive reproaches intended for God (Rom 15.3)
      7. 69.10 – He wept and fasted (Matt 4; Luke 4; and His trials)
      8. 69.11, 12 – People spoke against Him (False witnesses at His trial)
  50. Psalm 69.13–21 – No Comfort for the Messiah
    1. Verse 20 summarizes the horrible feeling experienced by the Messiah, and verse 21 shows what comfort they did seek to give Him was awful.
    2. Matthew 27.34, 48; Mark 15.23, 36; Luke 23.36; and John 19.28–30 all show how Jesus fulfilled this passage.
  51. Psalm 69.22–28 – The End of Those Who Oppose the Messiah
    1. You will recognize verse 25, but it is part of a larger passage that begins at verse 22 and ends at verse 28.
    2. We see the fulfillment of this first in Judas Iscariot, but I do not believe that what the Messiah prayed for ended with Judas, because the Messiah put it all in the plural.
      1. See what happened to Jerusalem in ad 70 for rejecting the Messiah.
      2. Look at every nation since then, and how they have gone down in shame for rejecting Jesus as the Messiah.
      3. For the initial fulfillment in Judas see Matthew 23.38; 27.3–8; Luke 13.35; and Acts 1.20.
  52. Psalm 69.29–36 – The Messiah Praises God
    1. Although suffering for those unworthy of the sacrifice of the Messiah, He knew that such would please God, and for that the Messiah would praise God.
    2. The New Testament shows Jesus always praising God.
  53. Psalm 72.1–4 – Messiah Will Have God’s Wisdom
    1. Many regard Psalm 72 as a messianic psalm. Therefore, although it sounds like Solomon, especially in verses 1–4 as he asks God’s for wisdom, yet, not all of the psalm could possibly refer to Solomon or any other king, other than the Messiah. Second Samuel 7 refers to both Solomon and the Messiah, and since Solomon was a son of David, even as the Messiah is a son of David, so we can see the good aspects of Solomon carried out in the Messiah.
      1. We can compare Isaiah 42, especially verses 1–9, which the New Testament quotes in relation to the Messiah, with Psalm 72 and see similarities, and it makes the task easy of seeing the Messiah in Psalm 72.
      2. Even as God gave Solomon wisdom, so God gave the Messiah wisdom, because He is the Son of God, and would automatically have wisdom, and with the Spirit of God upon Him (Isa 42), the Messiah would have wisdom.
    2. The New Testament, especially the Gospels, shows unquestioningly the wisdom of Jesus, that it was or is the wisdom of God.
    3. Also the New Testament freely declares that Jesus is the wisdom of God (1Co 1.24, 30; Col 2.1–3).
  54. Psalm 72.5–19 – The Extent and the Duration of the Messiah’s Reign
    1. He shall rule over all the earth forever.
    2. Matthew 28.18 says that Jesus has all authority.
    3. Luke 1.32, 33 declares that His reign will last forever.
  55. Psalm 78.2 – The Messiah Would Teach in Parables
    1. From all the other prophecies thus far, we have not seen that the Messiah would teach, but here the Bible provided a hint of His work, that it would involve teaching in some form, and that form would be parables.
      1. What are parables? Parables throw a story along the truth so that if one can see the story or illustration, he can also understand the greater truth that the teacher wishes to deliver.
      2. This would be one of the primary methods of instruction of the Messiah.
    2. Matthew 13.34, 35 to explain why Jesus of Nazareth spoke in parables.
    3. Matthew’s usage of Psalm 78.2 brings up the question of how much the Old Testament truly prophesied of the Messiah. Upon reading Psalm 78 without the benefit of having read the New Testament, just as the ancient Israelite would have done, we would not immediately think that this spoke of the Messiah.
      1. Yet, the New Testament writers did this frequently, and that is because they saw the whole Scripture as being about the Messiah, which we should do.
      2. Therefore, there are many more messianic prophecies than what I will be showing you.
      3. Consider what the New Testament says about Jesus and the Law – Romans 10.4; Galatians 3.24; Revelation 19.10. So then just how much does Luke 24.27 encompass?
  56. Psalm 89.3, 4 – The Son of David
    1. This is a common theme in the Old Testament.
    2. And the New Testament begins with declaring that Jesus of Nazareth is the Son of David.
  57. Psalm 89.19–23 – God Shall Help the Messiah
    1. Interestingly, verse 19 shows that the Mighty One needs help. Something would happen to Him that He would need the help of God. Verse 20 uses David to typify the Messiah, as is often done in the Old Testament, and verse 21 continues the thought that the Anointed One shall need strengthening from God, and then verses 22 and 23 show how God helps the Anointed One.
    2. Although Jesus was the Son of God, He was also the Son of Man, and He needed help as a man. We can see this during His prayer in the garden before His betrayal, and from that moment on. Later, God destroyed Jerusalem, and Rome, both of whom had become enemies of Jesus, and they fell just as this passage shows.
  58. Psalm 89.24–37 – Messiah’s Throne Shall Last Forever
    1. While God beats down the enemies of His Messiah, God shall exalt the Messiah, and His throne shall last as long as the days of heaven. If His followers fall away, God shall punish them, but He shall maintain His faithfulness and covenant with the Messiah.
    2. In Luke 1.33 Gabriel spoke to Mary of the baby growing in her that His reign would last forever.
  59. Psalm 91.11, 12 – Messiah Tempted
    1. God promised to keep death from falling upon the Messiah.
      1. Why would God make such a promise, especially with all the other prophecies of the suffering and torturous death of the Messiah?
      2. God promised to keep the Messiah from dying until His appointed time.
    2. Luke 4.9–12 shows Satan using this very promise to tempt Jesus to throw Himself down from the highest point of the temple, quoting Psalm 91 that God would then send His angels to keep Jesus from hitting the ground and dying.
  60. Psalm 102.24–27 – The Messiah Is the Creator
    1. The psalmist made it clear that he addressed God, speaking of
      1. His eternity (v. 24),
      2. His creation (v. 25), and
      3. His immutability (vv. 26, 27).
    2. Then we discover that the Hebrew writer quoted verses 25–27, but
      1. addressing the direct address to God from verse 24, and
      2. applied it to Jesus
        1. to establish the point that Jesus surpasses the angels, because
        2. He is the Creator, making Him God,

          10 And:
          You, LORD, in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth,
          And the heavens are the work of Your hands.
          11 They will perish, but You remain;
          And they will all grow old like a garment;
          12 Like a cloak You will fold them up,
          And they will be changed.
          But You are the same,
          And Your years will not fail.
          (Heb 1.10–12)

  61. Psalm 109.2, 3 – False Witnesses Would Surround the Messiah
    1. Mark 14.55–59
  62. Psalm 109.4 – The Messiah Would Pray for His Enemies
    1. Luke 23.34
  63. Psalm 109.6–20, esp. v.8 – The Sad End of the Messiah’s Betrayer
    1. Acts 1.16–22
  64. Psalm 109.21–31 – The Messiah’s Prayer in Which He Alludes to the Shaking of His Enemies’ Heads
    1. Notice verse 25.
    2. Mark 15.29, 30
  65. Psalm 110.1a – The Messiah Is David’s Lord
    1. Read the first line carefully, because you will notice David referring to his Lord having a Lord, but you need to see the way in which the translators spelled both lords.
      1. The first lord is either in all capital letters or small capital letters, indicating Yahweh or Jehovah, clearly referring to the Father.
      2. Then the second lord only has the first letter capitalized, referring to the Messiah.
    2. Jesus used this text to demolish the Pharisees, who evidently did not understand the eternal and divine nature of the Messiah (Mark 12.35–37).
    3. Hebrews 1.13, 14 uses this text, not to identify the Messiah as David’s Lord, but to show that since the Messiah is Lord He surpasses the angels.
  66. Psalm 110.1b – The Messiah Would Sit at God’s Right Hand
    1. Mark 16.19
    2. Acts 2.32–36
    3. Heb 12.2
  67. Psalm 110.1c – The Messiah Will Reign Until All His Enemies Are Conquered
    1. 1Co 15.25–28
    2. Eph 1.20–22
    3. Heb 10.12, 13
  68. Psalm 110.4 – A Priest Like Melchizedek
    1. Heb 5.6
    2. Heb 5.10
    3. Heb 6.20
    4. Heb 7
  69. Psalm 110.5 – At the Right Hand of God
    1. David spoke to God saying that the Lord (lower case) is at God’s right hand.
    2. 1Pe 3.22
  70. Psalm 118.22, 23 – Rejected Stone Would Become Chief Cornerstone
    1. This verse seems to be further commentary upon verses 1–21. If that be the case, then this whole psalm prophesies of the Messiah, and when you read, it appears to picture the persecution of the Messiah perfectly.
      1. Verse 22 simply shows the ultimate rejection experienced by the Messiah as revealed in the previous verses, and this verse also presents a turning point in the psalm.
      2. As the previous verses show, the nations all surrounded the Messiah and persecuted Him severely, but the Father took that which men rejected and used it to build the ultimate temple.
    2. Matt 21.33–46
  71. Psalm 118.26a – Arrives in the Name of the Lord
    1. Matt 21.8, 9
    2. Matt 23.39
    3. Mark 11.9, 10 connects this prophecy with David, that the Messiah would have a connection, presenting the kingdom of David.
    4. Luke 13.35
    5. Luke 19.37, 38
    6. 1Pe 2.7
  72. Psalm 118.26b – Arrives While Temple Still Standing
    1. Matt 21.1, 8, 9, 12ff
  73. Psalm 132.10, 11 – A Descendent of David
    1. Matt 1.1
    2. Luke 1.32, et al.
  74. Psalm 132.13–18 – His Home
    1. Heb 12.22–24